Shandong province has one of the oldest existing Great Wall sections in China, the Great Wall of the State of Qi, dating back more than 2,600 years.
There was once a powerful state known as Qi (1046-221 BC) that existed in what is now known as Shandong province during the Spring and Autumn period (771-476 BC) and the Warring States period (475-221 BC) of ancient China. In order to defend itself against neighboring states such as Chu and Zhao, the construction of the Great Wall of Qi began during the reign of Duke Huan (r. 685-643 BC) and lasted for more than 400 years.
After field measurements, the total length of the Qi State Great Wall was determined to be 619 kilometers, while the total length of the surviving ruins is 398 kilometers. The sites include stone walls, rammed walls, beacon towers, castles, gates, and barracks, indicating that the Great Wall from this historical period was a kind of systematic defense.