Nanyang is the biggest agricultural city in Henan province, with the largest land area and population. It is a national production area of grain, cotton, oil and cigarettes. Its six counties are the national bases of commodity grain and cotton, and three of those counties are the national bases of high quality cotton. Nanyang's yellow cattle heads the list of the national top five superior cattle, "Nanyang black pig" enjoys a good reputation in the whole province, and Nanyang tussah ranks first in Henan province.
Nanyang has abundant resources of forest, fruits, medicine and native products, including over 30 kinds of wood materials like pine, China fir, paulownia and so on. It has over 20 kinds of economic trees such as apple, kiwi fruit, orange, date, Chinese chestnut, tung oil tree, raw lacquer, gingko and so on. Also, there are eight types of rare traditional Chinese medicine, including cornel, magnolia flower, Eucommia ulmoides, Platycodon grandiflorum, the root of red-rooted salvia, Pinellia ternata, scorpion and blood amber. There are 16 nuisance-free agricultural product bases in the whole city.