China's Foreign Aid (2014)
Information Office of the State Council
The People's Republic of China
July 2014, Beijing
I. Developing Foreign Assistance Cause Steadily
II. Helping Improve People's Livelihood
III. Promoting Economic and Social Development
IV. Foreign Assistance under Regional Cooperation Mechanism
V. Participation in International Exchanges and Cooperation
China is the world's largest developing country. In its development, it has endeavored to integrate the interests of the Chinese people with people of other countries, providing assistance to the best of its ability to other developing countries within the framework of South-South cooperation to support and help other developing countries, especially the least developed countries (LDCs), to reduce poverty and improve livelihood. China has proactively promoted international development and cooperation and played a constructive role in this aspect.
When providing foreign assistance, China adheres to the principles of not imposing any political conditions, not interfering in the internal affairs of the recipient countries and fully respecting their right to independently choosing their own paths and models of development. The basic principles China upholds in providing foreign assistance are mutual respect, equality, keeping promise, mutual benefits and win-win.
In recent years, China's foreign assistance has kept growing. The following is an introduction of China's foreign assistance from 2010 to 2012.
I. Developing Foreign Assistance Cause Steadily
The scale of China's foreign assistance kept expanding from 2010 to 2012. Besides complete projects and goods and materials, which were the main forms of China's foreign assistance, technical cooperation and human resources development cooperation also saw remarkable increases. Asia and Africa were the major recipient areas of China's foreign assistance. To promote the realization of Millennium Development Goals, China directed most of its assisting funds to low-income developing countries.
1. Financial Resources for Foreign Assistance
From 2010 to 2012, China appropriated in total 89.34 billion yuan (14.41 billion U.S. dollars) for foreign assistance in three types: grant (aid gratis), interest-free loan and concessional loan.
Grant is mainly offered to help recipient countries build small or medium-sized social welfare projects, and to fund human resources development cooperation, technical cooperation, material assistance and emergency humanitarian aid. In the three years, China provided 32.32 billion yuan of grants, accounting for 36.2 percent of the total assistance volume.
Interest-free loan is mainly used to help recipient countries construct public facilities and launch projects to improve people's livelihood. In the three years, China offered 7.26 billion yuan of interest-free loans, taking up 8.1 percent of its foreign assistance volume.
Concessional loan is mainly used to help recipient countries undertake manufacturing projects and large and medium-sized infrastructure projects with economic and social benefits, or for the supply of complete plants, machinery and electronic products. In the three years, the concessional loans China provided to other countries amounted to 49.76 billion yuan, or 55.7 percent of its total assistance volume in the same period.
Foreign assistance budget is put under the unified management of the Ministry of Finance in line with the budget and final accounts system. Concessional loans are raised by the Export-Import Bank of China on the market. As the loan interest is lower than the benchmark interest released by the People's Bank of China, the difference is made up by the state as financial subsidies.
2. Distribution of Foreign Assistance
From 2010 to 2012, China provided assistance to 121 countries, including 30 in Asia, 51 in Africa, nine in Oceania, 19 in Latin America and the Caribbean and 12 in Europe. Besides, China also provided assistance to regional organizations such as the African Union (AU).
3.Forms of Foreign Assistance
From 2010 to 2012, China provided foreign assistance mainly in the following forms: undertaking complete projects, providing goods and materials, conducting technical cooperation and human resources development cooperation, dispatching medical teams and volunteers, offering emergency humanitarian aid, and reducing or exempting the debts of the recipient countries.
Complete projects. In total, China undertook the construction of 580 such projects in 80 countries, with infrastructure and agriculture as the focus.
Goods and materials. China provided 96 countries and regions with 424 batches of goods and materials, including mainly office supplies, mechanical equipment, inspection equipment, transport vehicles, articles for daily use, medicine and medical devices.
Technical cooperation. China completed 170 technical cooperation projects in 61 countries and regions, mainly covering industrial production and management, agricultural planting and breeding, culture and education, sports and physical training, medical and health care, clean energy development, and planning and consultation.
Human resources development cooperation. China held 1,951 training sessions for officials and technical personnel and on-the-job academic education programs in China, training a total of 49,148 people from other developing countries.
Medical teams. China dispatched 55 teams composed of 3,600 medical personnel to 54 countries to provide stationed or touring medical services, treating nearly seven million patients.
Volunteer programs. China sent about 7,000 young volunteers and volunteer Chinese language teachers to over 60 countries.
Emergency humanitarian aid. China extended 1.5 billion yuan worth of materials and cash assistance in emergency humanitarian aid to more than 30 countries.
Debt relief. China relieved nine LDCs and heavily indebted poor countries, namely, Tanzania, Zambia, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Togo, Benin, Cote d'Ivoire and Sudan, from 16 mature interest-free loans totaling 1.42 billion yuan.
II. Helping Improve People's Livelihood
One of the important objectives of China's foreign assistance is to support other developing countries to reduce poverty and improve the livelihood of their peoples. China prioritizes supporting other developing countries to develop agriculture, enhance education level, improve medical and health services and build public welfare facilities, and provide emergency humanitarian aid when they suffer severe disasters.
1. Promoting Agricultural Development
Agricultural development is crucial to poverty reduction in developing countries. Through establishing agricultural technology demonstration centers, dispatching agricultural experts to provide consultations and conduct technical cooperation, and training technical and managerial personnel on agriculture in other developing countries, China has taken proactive efforts to help other developing countries raise their agricultural productivity to effectively cope with food crises. From 2010 to 2012, China assisted 49 agricultural projects, dispatched over 1,000 agricultural experts to recipient countries, and provided them with a great quantity of machinery, improved varieties of grain, fertilizers and other agricultural materials.
Assisting the establishment of agricultural technology demonstration centers. Such centers provide an important platform for China's foreign assistance in agriculture. From 2010 to 2012, China-assisted agricultural demonstration centers were completed in 17 countries, including Benin, Mozambique, Sudan, Liberia, Rwanda, Laos, and East Timor. China passed on advanced and applicable production technologies to local farmers through experiment, demonstration and training. The demonstration center in Liberia promoted hybrid rice and corn planting in areas of nearly 1,000 hectares, and trained over 1,000 local agricultural researchers and farmers. The demonstration center in Rwanda researched, experimented on and demonstrated the adaptability of paddy rice and fungi in the context of the local traditional agriculture, and provided technical training to women's associations, paddy rice growers' associations and other organizations in Rwanda.
Dispatching senior agricultural experts and expert teams. Chinese agricultural experts took an active part in the agricultural planning of the recipient countries. The expert team dispatched to Benin provided expertise to the drafting of the country's Agricultural Law and Agricultural Administration Law. The expert teams sent to Botswana and Guinea-Bissau participated in the formulation of the two countries' agricultural development plans. Chinese experts assisted recipient countries in promoting their agricultural development. The expert team helped Lesotho with its application to the World Health Organization for FMD (foot-and-mouth disease) free membership. The expert team to Mauritania assisted the country in drawing up the plan for building its central laboratory for agricultural comprehensive analysis and testing. Chinese experts actively disseminated easy-to-learn agricultural techniques suited to the conditions of recipient countries. The expert team to Botswana promoted the use of plastic mulch in crop production. The expert team to Mali devised and promoted the use of iron harrows as a means of intensive cultivation in the paddy fields.
Training technical and managerial personnel on agriculture. Taking the characteristics and actual needs of agricultural development in developing countries into consideration, China provided nearly 300 research and training programs of various forms for almost 7,000 agricultural officials and technicians from the recipient countries. These programs covered a wide range of sectors, including management of crop cultivation, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, national policymaking on rural development and poverty reduction, food security, and agricultural cooperation among developing countries, and issues concerning the agricultural chain, such as technology dissemination and the processing, storage, marketing and distribution of agricultural products.
2. Improving the Level of Education
From 2010 to 2012, China continuously intensified its efforts of foreign assistance in education by way of constructing and maintaining school buildings, providing teaching facilities, training teachers, offering more government scholarships for foreign students to study in China, and assisting with the development of vocational and technical education, for the purpose of helping other developing countries improve their educational level and support their balanced and equitable development in education.
Improving teaching and learning conditions. China assisted over 80 projects in relation to educational facilities, including the construction and maintenance of primary and secondary schools, universities and colleges as well as libraries, and has effectively improved the teaching and learning conditions in the recipient countries. China provided large amounts of free educational facilities and materials to the recipient countries, including computers, teaching tools, stationery and sports equipment, and established university online education networks and distance education systems. In this way, China facilitated the efforts of recipient countries to diversify their means and expand the coverage of education.
Training teachers. In the three years, China trained over 1,000 educational officials, principals and faculty members from other developing countries by holding over 30 educational training programs, including those for senior administrators of colleges and universities, for higher education management, for vocational education management, for principals and teachers of primary and secondary schools, and for distance education.
Supporting vocational and technical education. Thousands of local people have been trained in the China-assisted Friendship Vocational Training Center in Omdurman. To increase its enrolment, China started the upgrading and expansion project of the center. China took active steps to help the recipient countries develop vocational and technical education. From 2001 to 2012, China dispatched over 400 teachers to Ethiopia to train the local teachers working in agricultural vocational and technical education. A total of 1,800 teachers from agricultural vocational schools and 35,000 agricultural technicians received training.
Increasing government scholarships to foreign students. From 2010 to 2012, the Chinese government assisted 76,845 foreign students to study in China. To promote regional development, China has continuously increased government scholarships to African students and augmented assistance for students from the ASEAN countries and the Pacific island countries to help under-developed countries in these regions develop their human resources.
3. Improving Medical and Health Services
Medical and health care is a major field where China directs its foreign assistance. From 2010 to 2012, China helped recipient countries improve their medical and health services, raise their disease control and prevention ability, and enhance their public health capacity by constructing hospitals, providing medicine and medical equipment, dispatching medical teams, training medical workers and conducting exchanges and cooperation on disease prevention and treatment with other developing countries.
Constructing medical facilities and providing free medical equipment. China assisted about 80 construction projects of medical facilities, including general hospitals, mobile hospitals, health centers, specialist clinics, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) centers, which have effectively alleviated the shortage of medical and health facilities in recipient countries. Moreover, China provided them with about 120 batches of medical equipment and medicine, including color Doppler ultrasound machines, CT scanners, automatic biochemical analyzers, maternal and infant monitors, critical surgical instruments, ICU monitors, and MRI scanners as well as drugs against diseases such as malaria and cholera.
Dispatching medical teams. China dispatched 55 medical teams with 3,600 medical workers to nearly 120 medical centers in recipient countries. They trained tens of thousands of local medical staff, which has relieved to a certain extent the shortage of medical services in recipient countries. The training was carried out through demonstrations, lectures, technical courses and academic exchanges, covering such topics as the prevention and treatment of malaria, AIDS, schistosomiasis and other infectious diseases, patient care, the treatment of diabetes and rheumatism, as well as the TCM of acupuncture application, naprapathy, health care methods and Chinese medicines. From 2010 to 2012, more than 100 Chinese medical workers were conferred medals by the recipient countries for their outstanding contributions.
Carrying out Brightness Trip activities. Brightness Trip program was actively carried out in both governmental and non-governmental channels to help other developing countries in the treatment of eye diseases. From 2003, China started to send medical teams to provide free surgery for patients with eye diseases in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Pakistan and other Asian countries. In November 2010, a Chinese Brightness Trip medical team arrived in Africa for the first time and carried out operations for over 1,000 cataract patients in countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique and Sudan.
Assisting the prevention and control of infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, China provided 60 batches of antimalarial medicine, H1N1 influenza vaccine and cholera vaccine free of charge to other developing countries and held training in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, the expenditure for this purpose accumulating to RMB200 million. In 2007, China and the Comoros launched a cooperation program of treating malaria with an artemisinin compound, an effective antimalarial drug, which helped the Comorian island of Moheli reduce its incidence of malaria by 90%. From 2010 to 2012, while making further progress in Moheli, China started promoting the program on the Comorian island of Anjoyan.
4. Building Public Welfare Facilities
To support other developing countries in improving their people's livelihood and organizing public activities, China actively assisted the construction of urban and rural public welfare facilities, affordable housing and social activity venues, provided relevant equipment and materials, and conducted technical cooperation on operation and management.
Carrying out well-drilling and water-supply projects. China undertook 29 well-drilling and water-supply projects in other developing countries, and drilled over 600 wells. Despite tough natural conditions and the threat of epidemics and terrorism, senior hydrogeologists and engineering geologists from China helped the recipient countries drill wells and undertake water-supply projects. China helped drill 200 fresh water wells in Kara and Centrale of Togo respectively and 38 wells in Darfur, Sudan and Kator of Juba, South Sudan, all of which were equipped with submersible pumps and generator sets. The China-assisted water-supply project in Zinder, Niger has solved the problem of drinking water for hundreds of thousands of local residents.
Improving people's living conditions. China assisted 80 residential housing and affordable housing projects in other developing countries, totaling about 600,000 square meters in floor space. China's architects and engineers gave full consideration to the living habits and environmental features of the recipient countries in both external and interior design, and exercised strict quality control while making efforts to reduce costs, for the purpose of providing comfortable and endurable houses to local residents.
Assisting the construction of public facilities. China assisted 86 construction projects of public cultural venues, sports venues, office buildings and conference centers in other developing countries. These projects helped enrich local residents' cultural and recreational life, improve the working conditions of local governments, and create a better cityscape. China assisted the rehabilitation of Sri Lanka's Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall, which was a gift from China in the 1970s and took on new dimensions four decades later. China funded the construction of Gabon's 40,000-seat stadium Stade d' Angondje, which hosted the competition final and closing ceremony of the 28th Africa Cup of Nations in 2012. China assisted the construction of the 20,000-square-meter Grand National Theater in Senegal, one of the largest theaters in Africa.
5. Humanitarian Aid
Over the past few years, the world has been frequently hit by severe natural disasters caused by earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and droughts as well as humanitarian crises caused by wars, and many countries have suffered serious casualties and property losses. China has made quick response to the appeals of the international community by providing relief materials or cash aid and dispatching rescue and medical teams as needed, to help the victim countries with disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction.
Providing emergency relief materials or cash aid. From 2010 to 2012, the Chinese government provided RMB1.2 billion worth of emergency relief materials in some 50 batches, including tents, blankets, emergency lights, generators, fuel oil, food, medicine and water filters, to countries affected by natural disasters or humanitarian crises, such as the earthquake in Haiti, floods in Cambodia, earthquake in Myanmar, floods in Pakistan, hurricane in Cuba, the war in Libya, and the turmoil in Syria. In addition, China provided cash aid totaling RMB300 million.
Assisting African countries in coping with the food crisis. In 2011 and 2012, the Horn of Africa and the Sahel were stricken by severe droughts and over 30 million people were faced with a serious food shortage. In 2011, the Chinese government provided on three occasions a total of RMB440 million worth of emergency food aid to the countries of the Horn of Africa, such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti and Somali. In 2012, the Chinese government provided RMB70 million worth of emergency food aid to Chad, Mali, Niger and other countries in the Sahel.
Supporting post-disaster reconstruction. In 2010, Pakistan was hit by a severe flood rarely seen in history. The Chinese government promptly carried out rescue work in all aspects and through multiple channels, participated in post-flood reconstruction by helping the victims and rebuilding transportation infrastructure as the country requested. China also provided cash aid to support Pakistan government's compensation packages for victims, and undertook the restoration project of the 340-kilometer national highway network destroyed in the flood-stricken areas, enabling 150 million people to have access to the traffic network. In March 2012, a series of blasts occurred in the north of Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of Congo. China assisted the construction of settlements for people displaced from their homes and actively supported reconstruction after the explosions.
Helping improve disaster prevention and relief capacity. China helped recipient countries enhance their emergency rescue, disaster prevention and relief capacity by ways of providing materials and training. Over the three years, China provided over 10 batches of rescue vehicles and equipment, and held 30 training programs on disaster prevention and relief for other developing countries, sharing experience with over 700 officials and technicians.
III. Promoting Economic and Social Development
China has actively helped other developing countries in infrastructure construction, and assisted their efforts in strengthening capacity building and trade development. China has also increased the amount of foreign assistance in environmental protection, helping the recipient countries realize economic and social development.
1. Improving Infrastructure
In light of the economic development of different countries, China arranges grants (aid gratis), interest-free loans and concessional loans in a well-proportioned manner to help recipient countries with the much needed infrastructure construction. From 2010 to 2012, China helped build 156 economic infrastructure projects. Exploring its advantages in technology, equipment and materials, and human resources, China effectively cut down investment costs for these projects while ensuring quality.
Supporting development of transport system. During the three-year period, China assisted the construction of over 70 transport projects, including roads, bridges, airports and ports. For example, China helped build the third section of the Sika Highway that connects Kenya's capital Nairobi to its economic hub Sika, thus making a contribution to the road network that links up Kenya, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Sri Lanka's Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport, built with Chinese assistance, further improves the country's all-dimensional transport network, and plays a positive role in promoting links and communication between Sri Lanka and its neighboring areas.
Increasing energy supply capacity. China assisted the construction of more than 20 energy projects, including hydropower stations, thermal power plants, power transmission, transformation and distribution grids, and geothermal drilling projects. The Bui Hydropower Station built by China in Ghana boasts the capacity of hydroelectricity generation, farmland irrigation, fisheries development and local tourism. Its completion has not only powered economic and social development in Ghana, but also benefited other areas in Western Africa. The China-assisted power transmission, transformation and distribution grids in Dakar, Senegal now provide power to 150,000 local residents, effectively ensuring power supply to the city, which had been troubled by its ageing grid and sudden blackouts until recently.
Promoting the development of information-based societies. China assisted the building of over 60 IT-related projects, including optical cable telecommunication networks, e-government websites, and radio and television frequency modulation transmitters. The telecommunication projects assisted by China in Turkmenistan, Togo and Eritrea provide high-quality and steady telecommunication systems to these countries, and the number of users has grown exponentially. The optical cable transmission networks assisted by China in Cameroon and Tanzania have effectively promoted the application of fiber cables in African nations.
2. Strengthening Capacity Building
Believing in the ancient Chinese wisdom that "teaching one to fish rather than giving one fish," China shares its experience and technology with other developing countries through human resources and technical cooperation, as well as through volunteer service, to help other developing countries build their own professional teams and enhance their capacity for independent development.
Fast development in human resources cooperation. From 2010 to 2012, China held 1,579 seminars for foreign officials, inviting nearly 40,000 officials from the governments of other developing countries to China. The topics of the seminars covered economics and management, multilateral trade negotiation, politics and diplomacy, public administration, vocational education, and non-governmental organizations. China also held 357 training sessions for about 10,000 technical personnel from other developing countries in the areas of agriculture, health care, telecommunications, industry, environmental protection, disaster relief and prevention, and culture and sports. To help other developing countries improve the ability of their senior management personnel in the public sector, China organized, during the three years, 15 on-the-job academic education programs. Master's degrees in public administration, education, international relations and international media were granted to 359 officials from 75 developing countries.
Extensive technical cooperation. During the three-year period, China sent over 2,000 experts to more than 50 countries to conduct technical cooperation, transfer applicable technique, and help improve these countries' technical management capacity in agriculture, handcrafts, radio and television, clean energy, and culture and sports. China also dispatched senior planning and consulting experts to other developing countries to help with the planning of land exploitation, clean energy utilization, river regulation, and economic cooperation. In a technical cooperation program, Chinese experts taught 500 Liberians to weave bamboo and rattan into marketable products. This program has not only created jobs, brought the locals more income and lifted them out of poverty, but also boosted the bamboo and rattan industry in the country.
The active role of volunteers. China continued to send volunteers to other developing countries to provide services in language teaching, physical education, computer training, traditional Chinese medicine treatment, agricultural technology, art training, industrial technology, social development and international relief for schools, hospitals, government agencies, farms, and research institutes. A Chinese volunteer to Liberia successfully rescued a newborn with gastroschisis, and was awarded the African Star medal. Volunteers to Ethiopia improved the planting method for melons, and local fruit farmers harvested much more than usual that year; the volunteers also taught the locals to build biogas pits so that they could use clean energy more efficiently.
3. Promoting Trade Development
As an active response to the WTO's Aid for Trade initiative, China strengthened its assistance in infrastructure construction and production capacity building for other developing countries. China also stepped up zero tariff treatment to these countries, supported their involvement in the multilateral trading system, and provided training for their economic and trade professionals so as to promote the trade development of these countries.
Improving trade-related infrastructure. During the three-year period, China assisted the construction of 90 large and medium-sized, trade-related infrastructure projects, effectively improving transportation for foreign trade in the recipient countries and reinforcing their connectivity with other areas. China also provided commodity inspection equipment, transport vehicles and other trade-related supplies and equipment to other developing countries. For example, it provided container inspection equipment to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Ethiopia, Egypt, Chad, Cape Verde, Zambia and Serbia, which has helped these countries improve their commodity inspection capacity and customs clearance ability, as well as effectively combat against smuggling.
Improving trade-related production capacity. China assisted the construction of a number of trade-related production programs, which have helped improve to a certain degree the production capacity of the recipient countries, so that they can better meet the needs of the market and improve the import-export mix. In December 2011, during the eighth ministerial conference of the WTO, China reached agreement with Benin, Mali, Chad and Burkina Faso -- the Cotton-4 countries -- on a cooperation program in which China provides cotton seeds, farm machinery and fertilizers, shares planting technologies, provides training, and supports local companies for technological upgrading and the expansion of industrial chain, so as to promote the development of the four countries' cotton industries and foreign trade.
Promoting export to China. In an effort to effectively boost export to China from other developing countries, in 2005 China decided to offer zero tariff treatment on taxable items in 190 categories to 25 least developed countries in Africa, and further expanded the scope of the treatment in the following years. In November 2011, then Chinese President Hu Jintao announced that China would offer zero tariff treatment to 97 percent of the taxable items from the least developed countries that had established diplomatic relations with China. By the end of 2012, commodities in nearly 5,000 taxable categories exported to China from the least developed countries were enjoying zero tariff treatment. Since 2008, China has been the largest export market of the least developed countries for five consecutive years, buying 23 percent of these countries' exported commodities.
Supporting the least developed countries in joining the multilateral trading system. China is an active participator of the WTO's Aid for Trade initiative. From 2008 to 2010, China made annual donation of 200,000 U.S. dollars to the program, and has increased the sum to 400,000 U.S. dollars since 2011. The donations are used to set up the China Program for Assisting the Least Developed Countries' Accession to the WTO, hold related seminars on accession to the WTO for these countries, finance their personnel to attend important WTO meetings and do internship at the organization's Secretariat. From 2010 to 2012, China held 18 seminars on promoting trade facilitation and WTO accession, sharing its experience with over 400 government officials from other developing countries.
4. Strengthening Environmental Protection
At the UN conferences on climate change held in Cancun, Durban and Doha, China shared its experience in energy conservation and emission reduction, and also pledged to increase assistance in the environment sector to the least developed countries, small island countries and African countries, in a move to help them develop clean energy and improve their capacity in addressing climate change.
Assisting construction projects. China actively cooperates with other developing countries in the areas of clean energy, environmental protection, flood control and draught relief, water resources management, sustainable development of forestry, water and soil conservation, and meteorological information service. In the three years, China undertook 64 projects in 58 developing countries on the utilization of renewable energy resources, such as solar street lamps and solar power generators.
Providing materials. From 2010 to 2012, China provided a total of 16 batches of equipment and supplies for environmental protection to 13 developing countries, such as Cambodia, Myanmar, Ethiopia, South Sudan and the Federated States of Micronesia, and the supplies included wind and solar power generators and lighting equipment, portable solar power supply, biogas equipment, garbage collection trucks, and draining and irrigation equipment. Meanwhile, China proactively promoted South-South cooperation on addressing climate change, and signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Complimentary Supplies for Addressing Climate Change with nine countries: Grenada, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Benin, Maldives, Cameroon, Burundi and Samoa. Under the framework, China donated more than 500,000 energy-efficient lamps and 10,000 energy-efficient air conditioners to these countries.
Providing assistance in capacity building. During the three years, China carried out technical cooperation with countries like Ethiopia, Burundi and Sudan, and helped these countries improve their utilization and management of solar power, hydro power and other clean energy. China also organized 150 training sessions on environmental protection and addressing climate change for over 120 developing countries, providing training to over 4,000 officials and technical personnel in such areas as low-carbon industry development and energy policies, ecological protection, water resources management and water and soil conservation, renewable energy exploitation and utilization, forestry management and desertification prevention and control, and early warning of meteorological disasters.
IV. Foreign Assistance under Regional Cooperation Mechanism
China lays great emphasis on strengthening group consultation with recipient countries through regional cooperation mechanisms and platforms, such as Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) and China-ASEAN Summit, and has, on more than one occasion, announced assistance packages in response to the development needs of various regions.
1. Promoting a New China-Africa Strategic Partnership
Africa is home to the largest number of developing countries. Since the establishment of FOCAC in 2000, China has actively developed its cooperation with African countries under the framework of the Forum, gradually expanded assistance to the region, and effectively promoted the comprehensive development of its relations with Africa.
Giving priority to agricultural development. China has all along paid great attention to its agricultural cooperation with Africa. From 2010 to 2012, China established 14 agricultural technology demonstration centers, and launched the planning or construction of another eight centers. China also sent a large number of agricultural experts to Africa to carry out technical cooperation, and trained for African countries over 5,000 agricultural technicians. In July 2012, at the Fifth Ministerial Meeting of the FOCAC, the Chinese government promised to provide assistance in building more agricultural technology demonstration centers in Africa, strengthen technical training, demonstration and popularization, and help African countries improve their ability in food production, processing, storage and marketing.
Giving support to infrastructure construction and integrated development. Infrastructure has always been the focus of China's assistance to Africa. The Tanzania-Zambia Railway is a landmark project in China's early assistance for cross-border infrastructure construction in Africa. After its completion, China continuously carried out technical cooperation to provide help in the operation and management of the railway. From 2010 to 2012, China built in Africa 86 economic infrastructure projects. In 2012, China announced the establishment of trans-national and trans-regional infrastructure construction cooperation partnership with African countries, rendering support in project planning and feasibility study, and encouraging the participation of capable Chinese enterprises and financial institutions in project construction. China provided active support to Africa in the process to build their own strength through unity and integration, assisted the construction of the African Union Conference Center and Office Complex, and stood up for New Partnership for African Development, helping Africa enhance capacity building.
Promoting medical and health care cooperation. China has long been committed to helping African countries improve their medical and health care conditions. Currently, there are 43 China's medical teams in 42 African countries. China assisted the construction of 30 hospitals and 30 malaria prevention and control centers, provided 800 million yuan worth of medical equipment and supplies and anti-malaria drugs, and trained over 3,000 medical staff for African countries. China-assisted Tappita Hospital in Liberia, boasting complete and advanced medical equipment, is jointly operated by China, Egypt and Liberia, which is a meaningful step towards its sustainable operation.
Capacity building. During the three years, China built 150 primary and secondary schools in Africa, and trained a total of 47,000 people of various professions. In 2012, China announced its African Talents Program: to train 30,000 personnel in various sectors for Africa in three years and offer 18,000 government scholarships. In that year alone, China offered 6,717 government scholarships to African countries.
Coping with climate change. China actively helped African countries improve their ability to cope with climate change, and strengthened cooperation with them in meteorological satellite monitoring, new energy development and utilization, desertification prevention and control, and urban environmental protection. A number of the 105 clean energy and water supply projects assisted by China have been under construction or put into operation. In 2012, China started to build for African countries automatic meteorological stations and high-altitude observation radar stations, provide them with forest protection equipment and carry out personnel training and exchange, in an effort to support Africa to strengthen its capacity in ecological conservation and response to challenges imposed by climate change.
2. Promoting Practical Cooperation with ASEAN
Since China and ASEAN announced the establishment of strategic partnership in 2003, China has conducted active cooperation with ASEAN countries in all fields, focusing on providing economic and technical assistance to low-income ASEAN countries to help the ASEAN narrow internal development gaps.
Supporting multi-level regional cooperation. China has provided funding through multiple channels to support ASEAN in playing its leading role in regional cooperation. From 2010 to 2012, China successively announced assistance measures at China-ASEAN Summits, with particular emphasis on assistance in infrastructure construction. China has assisted the construction of a large number of industrial and agricultural production and infrastructure projects, which have played a boosting role in the economic development of ASEAN countries.
Promoting comprehensive development of agriculture. Since 2010, China has constantly stepped up its efforts in implementing the China-ASEAN Action Plan on Comprehensive Food Productivity Enhancement. It worked with ASEAN countries in setting up 20 experimental stations of improved crop varieties, with the demonstration areas totaling one million hectares. In addition, China built three agricultural technology demonstration centers in ASEAN countries and dispatched 300 agricultural experts and technicians to provide technical guidance. China also worked with neighboring ASEAN countries to set up cross-border monitoring stations for animal and plant disease prevention and control and established a cross-border epidemic joint-prevention and joint-control system.
Boosting capacity building. During the three years, China trained for ASEAN countries over 5,000 officials and technicians in such fields as business conferences and exhibitions, culture and arts, Chinese language, finance and taxation, traditional medicine, control and treatment of infectious diseases, new energy, as well as agriculture.
3. Supporting the Economic and Social Development of Other Regions
Targeting to common development, China made use of such platforms as Forum for Economic and Trade Cooperation between China and the Portuguese-speaking Countries (Macau), China-Caribbean Economic and Trade Cooperation Forum, China-Pacific Island Countries Economic Development and Cooperation Forum, China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to carry out cooperation with developing countries in regions concerned.
Helping Asian and African Portuguese-speaking countries improve livelihood. Since the establishment of the Forum for Economic and Trade Cooperation between China and the Portuguese-speaking Countries (Macau) in 2003, China has conducted assistance cooperation with Portuguese-speaking developing countries, including Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and East Timor, in the fields like culture, education, health, capacity building and agriculture. From 2010 to 2012, China offered 1.6 billion yuan of concessional loans to the above five countries, and trained over 2,000 personnel for them. In 2011, a training center under the Forum was established in Macau, and it has since hosted over 10 workshops.
Enhancing practical cooperation with the Caribbean countries. China has been actively implementing the assistance measures it announced at the Third China-Caribbean Economic and Trade Cooperation Forum held in 2011. By the end of 2012, under the framework of the Third China-Caribbean Economic and Trade Cooperation Forum, China had provided the Caribbean countries with concessional loans totaling 3 billion yuan mainly for the construction of infrastructure projects. In the meantime, China trained over 500 officials and technical staff for the Caribbean countries, and held training courses for these countries in the establishment of earthquake and tsunami early warning and monitoring system. China also built schools for Antigua and Barbuda and Dominica, dispatched to Dominica medical teams and trained local medical staff, and carried out technical cooperation in agriculture and fishery with Dominica, Grenada and Cuba.
Supporting sustainable economic development of Pacific island countries. China lays emphasis on developing friendly cooperation with Pacific island countries and supports the Pacific Plan they initiated to boost regional cooperation. Since the first ministerial meeting of China-Pacific Island Countries Economic Development and Cooperation Forum in 2006, China has trained for these countries over 2,500 officials and technicians, and conducted technical cooperation in agriculture and fishery with Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga and the Federated States of Micronesia. China helped Papua New Guinea with malaria prevention and control, dispatched medical teams to Samoa, Vanuatu, the Federated States of Micronesia, Tonga and Papua New Guinea, and held training courses for health officials, hospital administrators and pharmaceutical researchers of Pacific island countries.
V. Participation in International Exchanges and Cooperation
With enhanced ability of participating in global affairs, China has within its capacity rendered support to the assistance programs initiated by multilateral development organizations, and has exchanged experience and explored practical cooperation in an increasingly open-minded manner.
1. Supporting Development Assistance Programs of Multilateral Organizations
In recent years, the United Nations and other multilateral organizations have been playing a prominent role in development assistance, particularly in promoting development financing, achieving the Millennium Development Goals and tackling global development issues. China has rendered support to and took part in the development assistance programs sponsored by the multilateral organizations by ways of voluntary donations, equity financing, etc.
Participating in assistance programs initiated by multilateral organizations. From 2010 to 2012, China contributed in accumulation 1.76 billion yuan to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, to support other developing countries in poverty reduction, food security, trade development, crisis prevention and reconstruction, population development, maternal and child health care, disease prevention and control, education and environmental protection. In the three years, China, through the FAO, dispatched 235 experts to Mongolia, Nigeria, Uganda and six other countries to provide technical guidance to improve local agricultural production. From 2011 to 2012, China worked closely with the WHO and dispatched 15 experts to Namibia, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Pakistan to help control the spread of poliomyelitis. In 2012, China set up an educational trust fund under UNESCO to provide teacher training for eight African countries.
Supporting development financing of regional financial institutions. China strengthened cooperation with regional financial institutions such as the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the West African Development Bank and the Caribbean Development Bank to channel more capital into the fields of infrastructure, environmental protection, education and health care in developing countries. By 2012, China had donated a total of 1.3 billion U.S. dollars to these regional financial institutions. Apart from China's investment of 20 million U.S. dollars to establish the Poverty Reduction and Regional Cooperation Fund in the Asian Development Bank in 2005, in 2012 China donated another 20 million U.S. dollars to this Fund to help with the poverty reduction and development of developing countries. By the end of 2012, China had contributed in total 110 million U.S. dollars to the Asian Development Fund of the Asian Development Bank. Furthermore, China supported capacity building of these financial institutions through technical cooperation funds set up in the African Development Bank, the West African Development Bank and the Caribbean Development Bank.
2. Participating in International Exchanges for Development Cooperation
China actively participated in international exchanges for development cooperation, enhanced dialogue with other countries and international organizations and shared experience in relation to development cooperation. Actively participating in research and discussion on global development issues. During the three years, China actively elaborated its principles, positions, and policies at a series of international conferences, including the UN High-Level Meeting on the Millennium Development Goals, UN Conference on Sustainable Development, UN Development Cooperation Forum, UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries, High-Level UN Conference on South-South Cooperation, G20 Summit, WTO's Aid for Trade Global Review, and High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness.
Conducting exchanges and dialogue on development cooperation with other countries and organizations. China enhanced dialogue and communication on development assistance with other countries and multilateral organizations to boost mutual trust and mutual learning in an open-minded manner. China held seminars on development assistance and conducted exchanges with the UK, Australia, Switzerland and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
3. Conducting International Cooperation in Foreign Assistance
In order to effectively learn international experience, improve assistance efficiency and enrich assistance forms, China intensified efforts to promote international cooperation in development assistance, and conducted trilateral cooperation featuring complementary advantage with multilateral and bilateral assistance providers by leveraging each party's strengths on the premise of fully respecting the will of recipient countries.
Jointly holding training programs. China continued to carry out cooperation on training programs targeted at other developing countries with the UNDP, the UNICEF, the FAO, the UNIDO, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of the Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), the United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), the World Bank, and the IMF. From 2010 to 2012, together with the above-mentioned organizations, China held about 50 training sessions of themes such as agriculture, trade development, disaster prevention and relief, finance, industrial development and social and public management.
Sharing experience on development cooperation. China and the World Bank jointly held workshops on international development cooperation featuring capacity development and infrastructure construction, and invited government officials from developing countries to share experience in the field. In October 2011, China and the UNESCO held the China-Africa University President Forum, at which China and Africa held discussions on the prospect of cooperation between Chinese and African universities. China held workshops, for five consecutive years, on South-South cooperation with the International Fund for Agricultural Development to share experience in agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. China and the Asian Development Bank held sessions for five consecutive years on city development in the Asian-Pacific region and development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
Piloting trilateral cooperation. China, the UNDP and Cambodia launched the cooperation project of enlarging cassava export on the basis of the successful training course of cassava planting technique. In March 2012, the UNESCO's Funds-in-Trust for China-Africa Multilateral Education Cooperation funded by China was launched to increase investment in basic education in Africa. At the request of the government of the Cook Islands, in August 2012 China, New Zealand and Cook Islands reached an agreement on a water supply project in Cook Islands. Once completed, it will provide safe and clean drinking water to local people.
Today, the impact of the global financial crisis still exists, and developing countries, especially the least developed ones, are still confronted with the tough task of poverty reduction and development. The international community should mobilize more development resources to strengthen South-North cooperation, support South-South cooperation and promote economic and social development of developing countries to eliminate poverty worldwide.
China is endeavoring to build a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way and stays committed to realizing the Chinese Dream of national prosperity and renewal, and happiness of the people. China will follow the trend of the times, which is peace, development, cooperation and win-win result, keep to the righteous viewpoint on justice and interests, respect and support developing countries' exploration of development paths suited to their own national conditions, actively promote South-South cooperation and make concrete efforts to help other developing countries promote social and economic development.
China will continue to increase the input in foreign assistance, further optimize assistance structure, highlight key aspects, innovate assistance means, raise the efficiency of capital utilization, effectively help recipient countries improve their people's well-being and enhance their capability of independent development. China is willing to work with the international community to share opportunities, meet challenges, strive to realize the world's dream of lasting peace and common prosperity, and make greater contribution to the development of mankind.